R as in ...
      
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Rootstock for grape vines

The rootstock is at the bottom. The graft actually produces the wine grapes. The rootstock does most of the work, and the graft gets the credit.

Racking
Racking is moving wine from one container to another without transferring the sediment. This labor-intensive process is less intrusive than filtering the wine, which removes more of the desirable elements. Racking the wine also oxidizes it, if done carefully this may improve the wine's aroma. Heavy red wines are often racked three or four times, while light reds and white wines are racked once or twice, if at all.

Refractometer
A refractometer measures sugar ratio in the grape juice by refracting (bending) light. The higher the sugar content, the more refraction.
Residual sugar
Residual sugar is the sugar left after the wine has finished fermenting. Dry wines contain less than 2 grams per liter of residual sugar. Sweet wines contain much more residual sugar, perhaps 100 times as much, or even more.
Reserve
The term reserve appears on the label of a wide variety of wine bottles. While it almost guarantees a higher price, in most jurisdictions it guarantees nothing else. Washington State, Italy (riserva), and Spain (reserva) regulate this term, and it may be worthwhile to pay a bit more for such wines.
Riperia
Riperia is the most common species of native North American grape vine. It is sometimes crossed with other species to produce rootstocks that are resistant to Phylloxera.
Rootstock
Rootstock, a group of Phylloxera-resistant roots, often form the base for grafting vines of grape varieties that are not resistant. The combined plants supposedly offer the best of both worlds. The roots are Phylloxera-resistant and the grapes are wine grapes. Some people claim that they can taste the difference between ungrafted grapes and grafted grapes. But most vineyards today use grafted rootstocks.
RosÚ
RosÚ is pink wine. The easiest way to make it is to remove the grape skins before they have deeply colored the fermenting wine. RosÚs should be served chilled, and are often the ideal accompaniment to a summer meal.
      
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