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French oak wine barrel

Beautiful barrel, great wine. Experts can tell you if a wine is aged in French or American oak barrels.

Fermentation
Fermentation is the process by which yeast transform sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation ceases when the temperature is too high or too low, when the sugar runs out, or when the alcohol level attains about 15%.

Field Blend
A field blend is the process of making wine from different grapes varieties within a single vineyard. This practice is losing popularity.
Filtering
The process of removing large particles such as sediment, spent yeast cells, and grape skins from wine after fermentation and before bottling. The finer the filter the greater the impact on the wines final composition, aroma, and flavor. An inappropriate filter can ruin a wine. Some experts claim that proper filtering enhances the wine. After all, who wants to drink or even look at grape skins? On the other hand as grape skins decompose they may add color and delightful characteristics to the wine. Contrast filtering with fining.
Fining
A traditional technique for clarifying wines by adding material such as clay (bentonite), egg whites, gelatin or isinglass to wine containers. The clarifying agent attracts suspended particles and slowly sinks to the bottom, after which it is removed. Fining is a less aggressive wine clarification technique than is filtering.
Flash pasteurization
Flash pasteurization is a sterilization technique in which wine is heated to about 176F (80C) for 30 to 60 seconds.Not everyone likes the wines produced by this procedure.
Fortified wine
A fortified wine is one whose alcohol level is increased by adding of neutral grape spirits. Examples include Madeira, Port, and Sherry. If the alcohol is added before fermentation completes, as with Port, the result is a sweet wine because some sugar will not ferment. In contrast, if the alcohol is added later, as with Sherry, the wine remains dry.
Free-run wine
The free-run wine is the juice produced by crushing the grapes, but before pressing them. This is considered the best juice for wine making. Contrast with press wine.
French oak
Many consider French oak to be the best for aging wine. It adds more subtle wood flavors and spices to the wine than does its most popular competitor, American oak. Connoisseurs can tell if a given wine has been aged in barrels from Allier, Limousin, Nevers, or other French oak regions.
      
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