C as in ...
      
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Canopy management

By carefully applying canopy management techniques this vineyard specialist is optimizing the harvest and improving the final wine.

Canopy management
The canopy is the grape vine foliage. Canopy management employs techniques such as pruning and leaf thinning that balance shoot growth and fruit development to maximize the varietal character of the grapes. Fewer leaves may mean more energy going into grape production and a reduced likelihood of rot.

Cap
A layer of grape skins, seeds, stems, and pulp that forms on top of the juice during the fermentation of red wines. The cap should not just lie there, it should be broken up and mixed with the fermenting juice. Two common techniques for doing so are pump over and punch down.
Capsule
The decorative metallic or plastic foil covering the cork and the upper neck of a wine bottle. Capsules may be replaced by a bit of wax on the top of the cork.
Carafe
As a noun-A glass or crystal container for wine or other fine beverages. As a verb-slowly pouring wine from the bottle into the container with the purpose of adding oxygen to improve its bouquet and aroma.
Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide is a gas produced during fermentation. It generates those wonderful bubbles found in wines such as Champagne.
Carbonic maceration
The fermenting of bunches of uncrushed grapes in an enclosed tank containing carbon dioxide, producing a light, fruity wine with little tannin. Beaujolais is the best known wine made by carbonic maceration.
Centrifuge
A centrifuge is a rapidly spinning device that separates materials, for example in the must, the liquid mixture of crushed grapes, juice, pulp, seeds, and skin. A centrifuge may be used to dealcoholize wine (perish the thought.)
Chaptalization
Chaptalization means adding sugar before or during fermentation to raise the alcohol level. This process usually takes place in cold climates in which the grapes may not ripen sufficiently to generate enough alcohol. It is often illegal, especially in warm climates, and may be rejected by some producers, even where legal.
Charring
Charring is burning the inside of the wooden barrel used for aging wine. This process adds color, aroma, and taste.
Chateau-bottled
A chateau-bottled wine is bottled at the estate where the grapes were grown. This process is common with Bordeaux wines.
Citric acid
Citric acid is found in many fruits such as oranges and lemons, but is a minor component in grapes. Some winemakers add it to increase a wine's acidity.
Claret
Claret is a British term for Bordeaux red wines, it comes from an old French term.
Clone
A clone is a sub-variety of a given grape variety. Some varieties such as Pinot Noir have multiple clones. Using the right clone can often mean the difference between success and failure. For example, a Pinot Noir clone that is successful in the warm climate of California can, and has, lead to disaster in the cooler climate of Oregon.
Cold stabilization
Cold stabilization means chilling wine prior to bottling it. This process crystallizes tartaric acid in the vat, so that these ugly, but harmless, crystals don’t appear in the bottle.
Color
A wine’s color comes mostly from the grape skins. In general, red wines get lighter as they age, while white wines get darker.
Cooperative
A cooperative is a winery collectively owned and operated by many small producers or growers.
Cork
The traditional stopper for wine bottles. Cork may come from the bark of the cork tree or be made out of plastic. It must be durable, flexible, and air tight.
Corkscrew
A corkscrew is a tool for removing a cork.
Cover crops
Cover crops are grasses or other plants grown in between vineyard rows that add nutrients to the soil, absorb excess moisture, and attract beneficial insects.
Crossing or cross
A crossing is the result of breeding two grape varieties of the same species, for example the German Bacchus cross between a Silvaner-Riesling and Müller-Thurgau. Many crosses occur spontaneously in nature. Contrast crossing to hybrid.
Crush
The noun crush refers to the harvest. The verb crush refers to breaking the destemmed grape skins before pressing and fermentation.
      
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